EVA POE SOLAR FILM DIE
Global energy decarbonization has been driven by renewable energy.Solar will account for more than half of renewable energy expansion in 2021.As the most abundant and safest energy source on earth, solar energy can be harvested using PVM.
Harnessing solar energy using photovoltaics (PV) is highly scalable, versatile, and has attracted a lot of attention from researchers and industry.The increased interest in PV has reduced its cost by more than 10,000 times since its inception, and the accelerated adoption of PV will further reduce its unit cost.However, PVMs have a lifespan of only 20 to 35 years.As a result, most PVMs are expected to reach their EOL by 2050, estimated at over 78 million tonnes.
Therefore, poor management of EOL PVMs can lead to land-based pollution.On the contrary, their successful recycling can reduce resource extraction and waste generation with sufficient economic returns.This review aims to provide an overview of existing EOL PVM recycling methods, recycling of embedded metals in modules, and factors that accelerate or hinder responsible and efficient recycling strategies for PV.
The structure of photovoltaic modules.Reprinted with permission from Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Ltd (GSES).
For outdoor use, photovoltaic cells are packaged between layers of glass sheets and a flexible polymer encapsulant, which is then mounted on an aluminum frame, protecting them from potentially harsh and changing weather conditions.Inside the PVM, elements such as silicon, copper, silver, tin and lead are embedded.Because these metals are rare, it is necessary to recover and recycle them for new applications.However, their separation is challenging due to the compact and interconnected design of PVMs.
PVM components must be carefully extracted to maintain the purity and inherent value of the recycled material.One solution to maximize the volume and value of recycling is to preprocess the EOL PVM.These treatments are divided into chemical, physical and hybrid.
Physical recovery methods include mechanical methods and pyrolysis methods.In the mechanical method, the aluminum frame and junction box are removed, while the residue is shredded and sorted according to its physical properties.Pyrolysis involves the recovery of clean PV cells by placing EOL PVMs in furnaces at temperatures exceeding 400 °C.Since no shattering is involved, glass and other residues can be recycled.However, this is an energy-intensive process using high-spec equipment.
Chemical methods include inorganic and organic solvent dissolution.The inorganic dissolution method involves immersing the EOL PVM in an alkaline or acid solution to dissolve the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) film and preserve the PV cells.Commonly used solvents are hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid.The organic dissolution method uses the swelling and dissolution of EVA film to extract photovoltaic cells.
Physicochemical methods combine the above methods, eliminating their disadvantages and benefiting from their advantages.Although this method has good recovery rate and waste utilization rate, it has high energy consumption, complicated operation and waste liquid.
The valuable metals contained in EOL PVM can be recovered by solvent extraction, vacuum distillation and acid leaching.Solvent extraction uses organic solvents to separate metal ions by forming coordination complexes with metal ions and then transfer them to other organic solvents.Acid leaching involves the leaching of dispersed metals from copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV cells using concentrated inorganic acids such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids.
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Post time: Jul-21-2022